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Early Behaviorism

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)— Classical Conditioning


Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)—Connectionism and Law of Effect

Behavior is strengthened when followed by a "satisfying" effect

John Watson & American Behaviorism

Watson (1878-1958)—work at Johns Hopkins until 1920 established new field of behaviorism; after 1920 Watson was very successful in advertising

All behavior is conditioned (learned), and the rules which govern learning can be studied scientifically and articulated; goal of psychology is to "predict & control behavior"

Other Behavioral Psychologies—Edward Tolman

Edward Tolman (1886-1959)—expanded view of behaviorism to consider role of cognition and purpose

Intervening variables—psychological processes mediate between stimulus & response (S-IV-R)

Classic experiments on latent learning and cognitive map(S-S rather than S-R connections)

Learning not mechanistic, trial & error, but is marked by discontinuities, insight

B.F. Skinner & Operant Conditioning

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)—radical behaviorist, advocated study of behavior alone, not the mind

Operant conditioning—behavior is modified by reinforcement which follows it

Not interested in S-R relationships or involuntary behaviors (such as salivation)

Behavior is strengthened by positive reinforcement