Deterministic perspective—behavior is determined by internal events
Role of unconscious influences
Developmental emphasis—stages, importance of childhood events
Emphasis on motivation (pleasure principle, avoid pain/anxiety)
Structure of personality—id, ego, superego
Motivation & unconscious processes
Motivations often remain unconscious, may be revealed through slip of tongue, dreams, etc.
Anxiety—especially neurotic anxiety (id vs. ego) & moral anxiety (superego vs. ego)
Ego defense mechanisms—protect against neurotic anxiety
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Emphasis on social interest —natural capacity to identify with goals of society to achieve a common good. Psychology should foster the development of social interest.
All behavior is goal-directed.
Fictional final goals—may not be realistic
Style of life—unique behaviors moving us toward goals
Inferiority as a source of motivation.
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
School of thought—"analytic psychology"
Personal unconscious (like Freud) & collective unconscious
Archetypes in collective unconscious are primordial images about universal topics
Parts of psyche include shadow, persona, self, animus & anima
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Basic anxiety (alone & helpless in the world) fosters development of 1 of 3 unconscious movements:
Compliant type moves toward others
Hostile type moves against others
Detached type moves away from others
Took issue with Freud’s views of women and sexuality, developed feminist perspectives of psychology emphasizing cultural influences on female personality.