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Psychodynamic Theories—Freud
General Characteristics

Deterministic perspective—behavior is determined by internal events

Role of unconscious influences

Developmental emphasis—stages, importance of childhood events

Emphasis on motivation (pleasure principle, avoid pain/anxiety)

Psychodynamic Theory--Freud

Structure of personality—id, ego, superego

Motivation & unconscious processes

Motivations often remain unconscious, may be revealed through slip of tongue, dreams, etc.

Anxiety—especially neurotic anxiety (id vs. ego) & moral anxiety (superego vs. ego)

Ego defense mechanisms—protect against neurotic anxiety

Post-Freudian Thought
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

Emphasis on social interest —natural capacity to identify with goals of society to achieve a common good. Psychology should foster the development of social interest.

All behavior is goal-directed.

Fictional final goals—may not be realistic

Style of life—unique behaviors moving us toward goals

Inferiority as a source of motivation.

Inferiority complex

Compensation

Post-Freudian Thought
Carl Jung (1875-1961)

School of thought—"analytic psychology"

Personal unconscious (like Freud) & collective unconscious

Archetypes in collective unconscious are primordial images about universal topics

Parts of psyche include shadow, persona, self, animus & anima

Introversion-extroversion

Post-Freudian Thought
Karen Horney (1885-1952)

Basic anxiety (alone & helpless in the world) fosters development of 1 of 3 unconscious movements:

Compliant type moves toward others

Hostile type moves against others

Detached type moves away from others

Took issue with Freud’s views of women and sexuality, developed feminist perspectives of psychology emphasizing cultural influences on female personality.