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Social Psychology by David G. Myers 8th Edition
Aggression: Hurting Others
What is Aggression?
Definition: physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
Hostile aggression: aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
Includes most murders
Instrumental aggression: Aggression that is a means to some other end.
Includes most terrorism

Murder Rates Vary
Theories of Aggression
Three major theories of aggression
Aggression as biology
Aggression as a response to frustration
Aggression as a learned social behavior

Theories of Aggression
Is aggression biological?
Instinct theory
Neural influences
Genetic influences
Biochemical influences

Theories of Aggression
Is aggression a response to frustration?
Frustration-aggression theory revised (initially thought frustration always led to some form of aggression, now believe frustration produces anger, which may or may not lead to aggression)
Is frustration the same as deprivation?
Relative deprivation Ė we feel deprived compared to others

Theories of Aggression

Is aggression learned social behavior?
The rewards (reinforcement) of aggression
Observational learning (exposure to aggressive models in the family, the culture, & the mass media)

Influences on Aggression
Aversive incidents
Pain, heat, attacks
Aggression cues

Influences on Aggression
Media influences
Pornography & sexual violence
Aggression against women
Televisionís effect on behavior
Televisionís effect on thinking
Video games
Group Influences

Reducing Aggression
Catharsis? Actually increases hostility.
A social learning approach
Keep expectations reasonable to reduce frustration
Reinforce nonaggressive behavior and teach conflict resolution skills
Apply punishment wisely and sparingly
Model cooperation and nonaggression
Address media violence